MetaCTF Cybergames 2020: Password Here Please
This is a write-up for the “Password Here Please” reverse engineering challenge from MetaCTF CyberGames 2020, which was worth 325 points.
Challenge statement: I forgot my bank account password! Luckily for me, I wrote a program that checks if my password is correct just in case I forgot which password I used, so this way I don’t lock myself out of my account. Unfortunately, I seem to have lost my password list as well… Could you take a look and see if you can find my password for me? Part 3 requires some math skills. To solve it, think about what is being done by the exponentiation step. Try rewriting the large number in base 257.
We are given a small python program that validates the password. Here it is:
def ValidatePassword(password): print("Password Validator v1.0") print("Attempting to validate password...") if(len(password[::-2]) != 12 or len(password[17:]) != 7): print("Woah, you're not even close!!") return False pwlen = len(password) chunk1 = 'key'.join([chr(0x98 - ord(password[c])) for c in range(0, int(pwlen / 3))]) if "".join([c for c in chunk1[::4]]) != '&e"3&Ew*': print("You call that the password? HA!") return False chunk2 = [ord(c) - 0x1F if ord(c) > 0x60 else (ord(c) + 0x1F if ord(c) > 0x40 else ord(c)) for c in password[int(pwlen / 3) : int(2 * pwlen / 3)]] ring = [54, -45, 9, 25, -42, -25, 31, -79] for i in range(0, len(chunk2)): if(0 if i == len(chunk2) - 1 else chunk2[i + 1]) != chunk2[i] + ring[i]: print("You cracked the passwo-- just kidding, try again! " + str(i)) return False chunk3 = password[int(2 * pwlen / 3):] code = 0xaace63feba9e1c71ef460e6dbf1b1fbabfd7e2e35401440ac57e93bd9ba41c4fbd5d437b1dfab11fe7a1c6c2035982a71765fc9a7b32ccef695dffb71babe15733f5bb29f76aae5f80fff valid = True for i in range(0, len(chunk3)): if(ord(chunk3[i]) < 0x28): valid = False code -= (257 ** (ord(chunk3[i]) - 0x28)) * (1 << i) if code == 0 and valid: print("Password accepted!") return True else: print("Quite wrong indeed!") return False print("Please enter password") while not ValidatePassword(input()): pass
Right, lets reverse this!
A High Level Overview
Since we have the luxury of having the source code at our disposal (and in a language as readable as Python!), let’s get an overview of what’s going on here. The easiest way to do so is to just run the validator. I’ve saved the program in a file called
validator.py. Start with running
Note that you’ll have to enter the password surrounded with quotes or python tries to evaluate the password as a symbol and crashes.
The program prompts us to enter the password. Let’s try something simple, like
"helloworld". It responds with a rather condescending
Woah, you're not even close!!, following which we get another shot at entering the password.
Okay, not very nice. Let’s take a cursory glance at the code and get an idea of what wer’re dealing with.
ValidatePassword function which seems to do all the heavy lifting here, and it returns
True if the password was accepted, and
False otherwise (and boy, it returns
False a lot!). This function is run in a
while loop that runs until a valid password is provided (or until you stop the program with
print("Please enter password") while not ValidatePassword(input()): pass
Now let’s start breaking down the
ValidatePassword function. At a glance, you can tell that it applies various validations one after another, and if a validation fails, it returns
False. We see references to
chunk3, each of which are validated independently. And towards the start, there seems to be something that validates the length of some convoluted subsection of the password. That’s 4 parts in total!
Let’s work through these in order!
Note: Each stage of the reversing process is under it’s own heading. So if you’ve already figured something out, feel free to skip ahead. This is a long read!
Stage 1: The Length of the Password
Our validation function kicks of with this bit:
if(len(password[::-2]) != 12 or len(password[17:]) != 7): print("Woah, you're not even close!!") return False
It checks for two conditions, and if either one is satisfied, the password is invalid, and we get the
Woah, you're not even close!! response we saw earlier. The second one looks easier, so we’ll start with that. The
password[17:] part is python syntax for “get me all the elements in this iterable starting from index 17”. The condition is true if the length of the part of the password starting from the 17th character is not 7. Since we want this to be false, we realise that our password has a length of 17 + 7, which is 24!
The first part of the condition also checks for the same thing, but in a much more convoluted way. The
password[::-2] is python speak for “Give me all the characters in this list, from start to finish, but start at the end and take 2 steps at a time”. Let’s break that down for the sake of clarity. Fire up a python interpreter using
python and enter these commands:
# Define the password password = "mysupersecretpass" # password[:] just gets all the characters in the password, which returns the password itself password[:] # mysupersecretpass # password[::-1] gets all the characters in the password, but starts from the end password[::-1] # ssaptercesrepusym # password[::-2] gets all the characters starting from the end, but skips every alternate character password[::-2] # satrerpsm
The condition is that
len(password[::-2]) should not be 12. Since we want it to be false, we realise that the length of the string returned by taking every alternate character of the password should be 12, which means that the length of the password should be
12 * 2 = 24. Perfect!
validator.py again, but this time enter a string of length 24. I just entered
This time the validation script says
You call that the password? HA!. Sweet, we’ve gotten past the first stage!
Stage 2: Deobfuscation and Inversion
Okay, here’s the code for the second stage:
pwlen = len(password) chunk1 = 'key'.join([chr(0x98 - ord(password[c])) for c in range(0, int(pwlen / 3))]) if "".join([c for c in chunk1[::4]]) != '&e"3&Ew*': print("You call that the password? HA!") return False
At this point, we’ll have to do some computations. Most people would write a script to solve this, but I preferred an interactive method where I could try my ideas in an interpreter. So that’s what we’ll be doing here. Fire up a python interpreter using
python and let’s get started!
It looks like this stage uses a subsection of the password to create the first chunk,
chunk1. We see that it operates on the characters of the password from index 0 to
pwlen / 3, where
pwlen is the length of the password. Since we already know that the password is 24 characters long,
pwlen / 3 = 8. The first chunk operates on the first 8 characters, so that’s what we have to figure out.
Let’s look at what
chunk1 looks like. In your interpreter, enter the code for finding
password = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwx" pwlen = len(password) # 24 # returns '7key6key5key4key3key2key1key0' chunk1 = 'key'.join([chr(0x98 - ord(password[c])) for c in range(0, int(pwlen / 3))])
Looking up the
ord functions tells us that
ord converts a single character into it’s integer ordinal, and
chr does the opposite - convert an integer ordinal into a single character.
Tip: You could google the
ordfunctions, but a real hacker would use the
helpfunction of the interpreter! Try typing
help(ord)in the interpreter.
Okay, I lied. A real hacker would use
So it looks like this is constructed by:
- Converting each character of the password into an integer using
- Subtracting each of these integers from
- Converting the resultant back into a character using
- Constructing a string by putting the word “key” between each character returned
Whew! Okay, let’s touch this when we need to. Let’s look at the next part, which has our condition.
if "".join([c for c in chunk1[::4]]) != '&e"3&Ew*': print("You call that the password? HA!") return False
Here, we use another string constructed from
chunk1 by taking every 4th character of
chunk1, starting from the first one. This is what
chunk1[::4] does. Type this into the interpreter:
"".join([c for c in chunk1[::4]]) # '76543210'
It looks like… this removes the
key between each character? That makes the whole adding “key” part from earlier pointless! Why would you ever do that?
Obfuscation. They’re trying to make our job harder and send us down rabbit holes. But it’ll take more than that to confuse us!
Let’s simplify this stage a little.
pwlen = len(password) chunk1 = ''.join([chr(0x98 - ord(password[c])) for c in range(0, int(pwlen / 3))]) if chunk1 != '&e"3&Ew*': print("You call that the password? HA!") return False
Okay, that is so much easier to understand! All we need to do is find an 8 character string that, when transformed into
chunk1, results in
In order to pull this off, let’s try and convert the
chunk1 that we expect back into the string. In other words, let’s write a function that can invert the transformation that is applied to obtain
chunk1. It’s time for some reversing!
So how do we figure this out? For starters, let’s say that the integer returned by
x. Then the transformation becomes
chr(0x98 - x). Let’s forget the
chr for a second. The crux of the transform is the
0x98 - x. Let’s say that this results in an integer
y. We then have the equation
0x98 - x = y. Now here’s the question: Given
y, how do you find
x? Yep, we can rewrite that as
x = 0x98 - y and solve for
In order to convert that back to a character, we apply the
chr function, thus resulting in
chr(0x98 - y). Remeber that
y is the integer ordinal of a character from
chunk1, so we need to convert a character
chunk1 into it’s ordinal before we use our little reverse-function. So, for a character
chunk1, we can figure out the corresponing character of the password using
chr(0x98 - ord(c)). This looks… familiar? This is exactly what we’re doing to calculate
chunk1 in the first place! This is a function whose inverse is… itself!
That makes our job easy. We don’t even need to write any code to figure out the first 8 characters. Since we know that chunk1 should be
&e"3&Ew*, and that the function that calculates
chunk1 is its own inverse, we can just give
&e"3&Ew* as an input to the function itself and figure out the first 8 chars of the password!
Let’s modify the
validator.py file to print
chunk1. Add this line right after
chunk1 is calculated:
validator.py again, but this time we’ll set the first 8 characters of the password to
&e"3&Ew*, and the remaining 16 to something random like “aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa”. Make sure that you’ve simplified the code as per the instructions above, and replaced the
"".join. Here’s the input you need:
And that prints
r3verS!n! So the the first 8 characters of the password must be
r3verS!n. Let’s try this input next to confirm:
And this time it tells us that
You cracked the passwo-- just kidding, try again! 0! Looks like we’ve gotten past this stage and figured out the first 8 characters correctly!
Stage 3: Reverse and Inverse
We move on to the next snippet, which deals with
chunk2. Judging by the range in the list comprehension which creates
chunk2, it looks like it operates upon the next 8 characters of our 24 character password.
chunk2 = [ord(c) - 0x1F if ord(c) > 0x60 else (ord(c) + 0x1F if ord(c) > 0x40 else ord(c)) for c in password[int(pwlen / 3) : int(2 * pwlen / 3)]] ring = [54, -45, 9, 25, -42, -25, 31, -79] for i in range(0, len(chunk2)): if(0 if i == len(chunk2) - 1 else chunk2[i + 1]) != chunk2[i] + ring[i]: print("You cracked the passwo-- just kidding, try again! " + str(i)) return False
We see that the list comprehension being used to construct
chunk2 returns the result of some arithmetic operations on the ordinal value of each character (which is obtained using the
ord function). So
chunk2 is a list of 8 integers.
And then there seems to be a list of seemingly random numbers called
ring which is used to validate
Finally, we have a for loop that iterates over the elements of
chunk2 and applies a condition to each of them in order to validate them. In essence, we will need the second group of 8 characters of the password to generate an array of integers
chunk2 that passes this validation. It makes sense that we want to know
chunk2 first (and also, this is a reversing challenge, hehehe), so let’s go in reverse and figure out the integer array
Here is the condition (where
i is the index):
(0 if i == len(chunk2) - 1 else chunk2[i + 1]) != chunk2[i] + ring[i]
This might seem complex at first glance (especially because of the ternary operator), but it really isn’t. It just says that for all values of
i except the last (i.e. except when
len(chunk2) - 1),
chunk2[i] + ring[i] must equal
chunk2[i+1] (i.e. the value at the next index of
chunk2. For the last value of
chunk2[i] + ring[i] must equal 0.
Since we know the exact value of
chunk2[i] + ring[i] for the last element (
i=7), we can start with that and work our way backwards. Lot’s of reversing here!
Fire up your python interpreter and let’s play with this. The comments will explain what’s happening.
# let's first grab the ring from the source code ring = [54, -45, 9, 25, -42, -25, 31, -79] # let's create a list of 8 integers to represent chunk2 # we initialize the elements of chunk2 to 0 chunk2 = [0 for i in range(8)] # [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0] # we know that chunk2 + ring = 0 # therefore... chunk2 = 0 - ring # [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 79] # we work our way backwards to calculate the rest of the elements of chunk2 # using the knowledge that since chunk2[i+1] = chunk2[i] + ring[i] # chunk2[i] = chunk2[i+1] - ring[i] for i in reversed(range(7)): chunk2[i] = chunk2[i+1] - ring[i] # print chunk2 (note that if you are in the interpreter, you can just enter the variable name instead of using the print function) chunk2 # [72, 126, 81, 90, 115, 73, 48, 79]
You can confirm that this is the right value of
chunk2 by placing this line of code right before the for loop that validates it and checking if you are able to get past this stage.
chunk2 = [72, 126, 81, 90, 115, 73, 48, 79]
Okay, now that we know our target value of
chunk2, it is time to figure out the characters that generate it. Time to reverse the part that generates
This source code seems to make rather generous use of the ternary operator which (possibly intentionally) hurts readability. To make matters worse, we have a list comprehension! So let’s refactor the whole thing into a vanilla for loop which uses a function to get the right value for each char. Here’s what that might look like:
def chunk2_char(c): if ord(c) > 0x60: return ord(c) - 0x1F else: if ord(c) > 0x40: return ord(c) + 0x1F else: return ord(c) chunk2 =  for c in password[int(pwlen / 3) : int(2 * pwlen / 3)]: chunk2.append(chunk2_char(c))
In this form, the code becomes far easier to analyse. Refactoring code to improve readability and mitigate obfuscation is more important than you might expect during reverse engineering.
Now lets try to invert the
Let’s start with the return values. The easiest one is the
return ord(c) in the very end. This just converts the character to the integer ordinal, so to invert that, we can use the
For the condition where
ord(c) > 0x60, the function returns
ord(c) - 0x1F. To invert this, let’s say that
x = ord(c). We then solve the equation
x - 0x1F = y for
x, which gives us
x = y + 0x1F. Since
x = ord(c), we can get
x by using the inverse of the
ord function, which, as you are well aware by now, is the
chr function. Thus, the inversion of
ord(c) - 0x1F becomes
chr(x) which boils down to
chr(x + 0x1F).
By a similar chain of reasoning, you’ll find that the inverse of
ord(c) + 0x1F is
chr(x + 0x1F).
Now let’s look at the conditions. In the original function, the first condition is
ord(c) > 0x60. Let’s think of this as follows: let’s say that our inverse function takes an integer ordinal
x and returns a character
c. When we apply the original function to
c, we should get
x back. So when we check whether
ord(c) > 0x60 is true in the original function, the
c here is the value returned by our inverse function. Which means that for each of the conditions, we can replace the
ord(c) with the integer ordinal of the value returned if that condition is true.
For example, if the first condition (
ord(c) > 0x60) is true, the returned value is
chr(x + 0x1F). Replacing the
c with this value, we get the condition
ord(chr(x + 0x1F)) > 0x60. But we can simplify this knowing that the
ord function is the inverse of the
chr function. So
ord(chr(x)) = x. Applying this, we get the inverse condition
x + 0x1F > 0x60. We can rearrange terms and make this
x > 0x60 - 0x1F which simplifies to
x > 65 (you can do all these calculations in your interpreter).
By using similar reasoning, we figure out that the inverse of the second condition is
if x - 0x1F > 0x40, which simplifies to
x > 95.
Armed with the inverses of each of the pieces, we can construct our inverse function as follows:
def inverse_chunk2_char(x): if x > 65: return chr(x + 0x1F) else: if x > 95: return chr(x - 0x1F) else: return chr(x)
And apply it to the
chunk2 value we calculated earlier like this:
result = ''.join(list(map(inverse_chunk2_char, chunk2))) # if you don't understand the map syntax very well, this list comprehension also works result = ''.join([inverse_chunk2_char(x) for x in chunk2])
But if you actually look at the value of
result, you’ll see that though it looks like we got some things right, some of the values are non-printable. Looks like there is an issue with our inverse function.
The issue lies in the order in which we check our conditions. Think about what would happen for the value
x = 126 (the second item in the
chunk2 array). The first condition checks out because obviously
126 > 65. But so does the second condition (
126 > 95). In fact, if you think about it, you’ll realise that the first condition is true whenever the second condition is because 95 > 65. So we don’t ever reach the second condition when the first one is true. Even when you need to. To fix this, we just reorder things a little (note that all conditions are independent, so we don’t need the nested if here anyways).
def inverse_chunk2_char(x): if x > 95: return chr(x - 0x1F) elif x > 65: return chr(x + 0x1F) else: return chr(x)
We now retrieve the 8 characters we need using
result = ''.join(list(map(inverse_chunk2_char, chunk2))) # 'g_pyTh0n'
That looks legit. So the first 16 characters of our password seem to be
r3verS!ng_pyTh0n. Reversing python huh?
'r3verS!ng_pyTh0naaaaaaaa' in the password prompt results in
Quite wrong indeed!. Nice, we’ve gotten past this stage!
Stage 4: Doin’ the Math
We’re finally at the last stage. Let’s look at what we have:
chunk3 = password[int(2 * pwlen / 3):] code = 0xaace63feba9e1c71ef460e6dbf1b1fbabfd7e2e35401440ac57e93bd9ba41c4fbd5d437b1dfab11fe7a1c6c2035982a71765fc9a7b32ccef695dffb71babe15733f5bb29f76aae5f80fff valid = True for i in range(0, len(chunk3)): if(ord(chunk3[i]) < 0x28): valid = False code -= (257 ** (ord(chunk3[i]) - 0x28)) * (1 << i) if code == 0 and valid: print("Password accepted!") return True else: print("Quite wrong indeed!") return False
This stage follows the same pattern of taking an 8 character long chunk and applying some validations on it. If these pass, you will (presumably) get the coveted
We start with a really, really long hexadecimal number called
code. And the condition to make it work is quite straightforward:
code must equal 0 and
valid must be
All the processing happens in this for loop:
valid = True for i in range(0, len(chunk3)): if(ord(chunk3[i]) < 0x28): valid = False code -= (257 ** (ord(chunk3[i]) - 0x28)) * (1 << i)
For starters, we are looking at the
ord values of the characters. So we’re dealing with numbers here.
The first thing is a condition that checks if
ord(c) < 0x28 (where
c is a character of chunk3), and if so, sets
False. We don’t want that, so we obviously don’t want to trigger this condition. It is thus obvious that all the characters of this chunk will have integer ordinals greater than 0x28. Easy enough.
The next line does some strange maths. In each iteration, it subtracts from the current value of
code the result of this strange calculation:
(257 ** (ord(chunk3[i]) - 0x28)) * (1 << i). In the end, the value of
code must be 0. Since we are dealing with 8 iterations (corresponding to the last 8 characters of the password), we are doing this subtraction 8 times. In other words, we are subtracting 8 values from
code, and this must result in a
0. Let’s say that these values are
x7. We can then express the intent of the for loop and condition as this equation:
code - x0 - x1 - x2 - x3 - x4 - x5 -x6 -x7 = 0 => code = x0 + x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6 + x7 => x0 + x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5 + x6 + x7 = code
x0...x7 are the various values of the convoluted expression
(257 ** (ord(chunk3[i]) - 0x28)) * (1 << i).
It’s time to break this expression down!
To make things easier, let’s say that
ord(chunk3[i]) - 0x28 = yi. This is easy to invert and lets us focus on the right things. The expression then becomes
(257 ** yi) * (1 << i). That’s much better.
(1 << i) represents a bitwise left shift. If you don’t know how these work, I suggest doing a google search at this point. All you need to know for this part is that a bitwise left shift by
i places is equivalent to multiplying the given number by
2^i. Since we are shifting
1 in all the cases, the
(1 << i) turns into
1 * 2^i which is simply
2^i. Finally, just to use more comfortable mathematical notation, let’s replace the python exponentiation operator
** with the more familiar
^. We now get something that looks a lot more manageable:
(257 ^ yi) * (2 ^ i)
Our problem now reduces to finding 8 values (
y0 to y7) such that plugging each of them into the above expression and summing them up results in
code. That’s troublesome. We have 8 unknowns and only one equation. And it isn’t even a polynomial one!
I was stuck at this point for a bit, but that’s when the hint from the challenge came to my rescue! To recap, “Part 3 requires some math skills. To solve it, think about what is being done by the exponentiation step. Try rewriting the large number in base 257.”
Yes! We can convert this to base 257! To understand why, let’s take a quick look at what it means to be a number in a certain base
b. Let’s say we have the octal number 176. Let’s convert this into the more familiar base 10 (decimal). To do this, we run the following calculation (your interpreter is a good place to play with this):
6 * (8 ** 0) + 7 * (8 ** 1) + 1 * (8 ** 2) # 126
There is a pattern here. Starting from the end, we take each digit and multiply it by the base raised to the power of the position of the digit (starting with 0, which is the position of the last digit).
So if we convert
code into base 257, we will have a resultant that looks something like:
a * (257 ** 0) + b * (257 ** 1) + .... + x * (257 ** k)
k is one less than the number of digits in base 257 that code has. This matches with the pattern we saw in the previous expression! Let’s try this and see where it takes us.
I found this base conversion python script online which was well written and up to the task, and the article accompanying it is quite good too.
Copy the code from the article into a python file and name it
bconvert.py. Since we need to get a list of what would be the digits in base 257, we’ll take a quick look at the code and print this list out. It turns out that this is quite simple. Most of the work happens in the
convert_number_system function. Right after the main
while loop (the
while sum_base_10 > 0 condition) completes, add this line:
Run the converter using
python bconvert.py. Note that this one requires python3. When asked for the base to convert from, enter 16 (since
code is in hexadecimal). For the base to convert to, enter 257. Finally, for the number to convert, enter the value of
The script should print a list containing our digits (ignore the final output; you don’t have 257 digits to represent base 257) that looks like this (note that you’ll see an array of strings, but I’ve converted it into numbers):
[0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 32, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 64, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 17, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 128, 0, 0, 0, 8]
This is interesting! It looks like most of our “digits” are zero! We also seem to have seven non-zero digits: 32, 4, 64, 17, 2, 128, and 8. You’ll have to take a quick look at the base conversion script to realise that it conveniently prints out the digits from the end. So the digit at index 0 of this list is the last digit, and so on. Recall that we can convert this into the familiar decimal system by multiplying each of these digits with
257 ^ index.
Let’s quickly find the indices of the interesting non-zero digits. Here’s a Python one liner. We’ll also make a new list with the non-zero digits:
digits = [0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 32, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 4, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 64, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 17, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 128, 0, 0, 0, 8] non_zero_digits = filter(lambda x: x, digits) # [32, 4, 64, 17, 2, 128, 8] indices = [digits.index(i) for i in non_zero_digits] # [30, 39, 45, 55, 62, 70, 74]
Since most of our numbers are zero,
0 * (257 ^ index) will just be 0, so we can ignore them. We can now express
code mathematically as:
code = (257 ^ 30) * 32 + (257 ^ 39) * 4 + (257 ^ 45) * 64...
We immediately see that all the digits except 17 are powers of two, and they are being multiplied by something that is in the form
257 ^ yi! This looks exactly like our equation from earlier:
(257 ^ yi) * (2 ^ i)
Except we have two problems:
- There are 8 terms in our equation (for 8 characters of the password), but we only have 7 non-zero digits.
- The 17 is problematic because it isn’t a power of 2.
The solution to both of these issues is the same. It is the subtle realization that
17 = 16 + 1!
So we can rewrite the term of the equation involving the digit 17 as
(257 ^ 55) * 17 = (257 ^ 55) * 16 + (257 ^ 55) * 1. We now have exactly 8 terms, all of which are in the form
(257 ^ yi) * (2 ^ i). Perfect!
We can now write each of the 8 digits we have in the form
(257 ^ yi) * (2 ^ i), so let’s do that. I’ve ordered this based on increasing values of i:
(257 ^ 55) * (2 ^ 0) # 1 = 2 ^ 0, the index corresponding to 1 is the one for 17, which is 55 (257 ^ 62) * (2 ^ 1) # 2 = 2 ^ 1 (257 ^ 39) * (2 ^ 2) # 4 = 2 ^ 2 ... (257 ^ 70) * (2 ^ 7) # 128 = 2 ^ 7
With this ordering, we can construct a list of
yi values, which are just the powers that
257 is raised to.
Now recall that we had set
yi = ord(chunk3[i]) - 0x28 earlier. To get
chunk3[i] values, we need to invert this function. This is easy if you’ve gotten past the previous stage. We realise that
chunk3[i] = chr(yi + 0x28). Knowing this, we can construct
chunk3 as follows:
# Our list of yi values yis = [55, 62, 39, 74, 55, 30, 45, 70] chunk3 = [chr(yi + 0x28) for yi in yis] # ['_', 'f', 'O', 'r', '_', 'F', 'U', 'n'] # We convert the character list into a string password_chunk = ''.join(chunk3) # '_fOr_FUn'
And we have the last 8 characters! You can enter this in the password prompt to finally feel the euphoria of
The flag is